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CULTURE-HERITAGE

Excavation In Gottiprolu, AP, Indicate It As Trade Centre Of Early Historic Period

A 2000-year-old brick structure and a Vishnu sculpture were also unearthed from the site.

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GOTTIPROLU (Andhra Pradesh): Excavation by Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) in Andhra’s Gottiprolu indicate it as a Trade Centre of Early Historic Period, 2000-year-old brick structure and a Vishnu sculpture also unearthed. The 1st phase of excavation by a team of ASI Excavation Branch – VI, Bangalore at Gottiprolu near Naidupeta in Nellore (now renamed as Sri Potti Sri Ramulu) district has discovered the remains of a huge settlement surrounded by a massive brick enclosure.

A 2000-year-old brick structure and a Vishnu sculpture were also unearthed from the site. ASI retrieved a moulded female terracotta figurine with two hands lifted upwards.

Another interesting find is the small rectangular brick tank exposed near the inner lining of the curved brick structure.


Interesting pottery finds are the base of conical jars placed at the eastern side of the structure. Such conical jars are widely distributed in Tamil Nadu and considered to be imitated variety of Roman Amphorae jars.

Other major retrieved antiquities unearthed are copper and lead coins, iron spearhead, stone celts, terracotta beads, ear stud in semi-precious stone and hopscotches.

Explorations conducted in and around Gottiprolu within a radius of 15 kilometres revealed important vestiges viz., fortified an early historic settlement at Puduru, Sunbrahmanya temple at Mallam, unique rock-cut laterite stepped well at Yakasiri, Vishnu temple at Tirumuru.



Further, the entire seacoast on the east is dotted with various forms of antiquarian remains extending from Tamil Nadu and culturally linked with each other.

The two fortified townships within the gap of 15kms during early historic times indicate the significant strategic location was preferred by the early historic people for trade in the region keeping in view of the proximity of the sea, River and Lake (Pulicat).


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1 Comment

1 Comment

  1. DR. PRASHANT SHAMBHUDAYAL RAWAT

    1st November 2019 at 12:54 PM

    Very exciting find, indeed! 🙂

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CULTURE-HERITAGE

Sabarimala Case: SC Refers Review Pleas To Larger, 7-Judge Bench

The CJI said that the endeavour of the petitioners was to revive the debate on religion and faith.

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NEW DELHI: The Supreme Court on Thursday referred to a seven-judge bench over 60 petitions seeking review of its 2018 judgment where it allowed women of all ages entry into Kerala’s Sabarimala Temple. The bench will re-examine various religious issues, including the entry of women into mosques and the practice of female genital mutilation in the Dawoodi Bohra community.

Also Read:
(1) #Sabarimala: Will Shut Down Temple if Tradition Violated, Says Head Priest
(2) #Sabarimala: Doors of Lord Ayyappa Temple Open Amid Huge Protests
(3) Justice Malhotra Lone Dissenting Voice as SC Allows Entry of Women of All Ages in Sabarimala Temple

Supreme Court today said that restrictions on women in religious places were not limited to Sabarimala alone and was prevalent in other religions as well.


Supreme Court, by a majority of 3:2, has referred the review petitions to a larger seven-judge bench. Justice Rohinton Fali Nariman and Justice DY Chandrachud gave dissent judgement.

The verdict comes three days ahead of the opening of the Sabarimala temple dedicated to Lord Ayyappa, a “Naishtika Brahmachari” (Perennial celibate), on November 17 for the annual two-month-long pilgrim season.

However, the majority verdict did not say anything adverse against the apex court’s September 28, 2018 decision allowing women to enter the shrine nor did it stay the earlier judgement.



There is no clarity whether women can enter the shrine, which is scheduled to open for worship from November 17.

The Apex Court said that the larger bench will decide all such religious issues relating to Sabarimala, entry of women in mosques and practice of female genital mutilation in the Dawoodi Bohra community.

Chief Justice of India Ranjan Gogoi read the verdict on behalf of himself and Justices A M Khanwilkar and Indu Malhotra.

The CJI said that the endeavour of the petitioners was to revive the debate on religion and faith.

He added that the apex court should evolve a common policy on religious places like Sabarimala and added that the larger bench will decide the issues relating to this Hindu shrine, entry of women into mosques and practice of female genital mutilation.

The split 3:2 decision came on 65 petitions — 56 review petitions, four fresh writ petitions and five transfer pleas — which were filed against the earlier 4:1 verdict

The five-judge Constitution heard in an open court the pleas by the parties, including the Nair Service Society(NSS), the Sabarimala temple’s Head Priest, the Travancore Devaswom Board (TDB) and the state’s Left Democratic Front(LDF) government.



The apex court, by a majority verdict of 4:1, in September 2018, had lifted the ban that prevented women and girls between the age of 10 and 50 from entering the famous Ayyappa shrine in Kerala. It had also held that this centuries-old Hindu religious practice was illegal and unconstitutional.

The court understood the feelings of the devotees and transferred the petitions to be reviewed by a seven-judge bench. We feel relieved and happy that the Supreme Court has decided to review its earlier verdict. This is Lord Ayyappa’s blessing,” said Sasikumar Verma, a Pandalam Royal family member who is one of the petitioners.

However, Kerala CM Pinarayi Vijayan was less enthusiastic about the Sabarimala verdict:

There needs to be more clarity on this judgement. A five-member bench has given a majority judgement. We have already made it clear that the government is committed to comply by the Supreme Court judgment no matter what it is. As of now, we are given to understand that the first verdict is still in place. We need to understand the impact of this verdict and will seek legal opinions. Now we are understanding that the SC judgement of September 28 is still in place, but we are unclear about the implications. We will have to seek the opinion from the experts. We need more time for this.”


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CULTURE-HERITAGE

Guru Nanak Dev Ji’s 550th Birth Anniversary Celebrated Today

Guru Nanak Dev was born on the full moon day of Kartik month in 1469.

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NEW DELHI: The 550th birth anniversary of first Sikh guru and founder of Sikhism Guru Nanak Dev is being celebrated on Tuesday as Prakash Parv.

President Ramnath Kovind will take part in the festivities at Sultanpur Lodhi in Kapurthala district of Punjab. Guru Nanak Dev Ji spent more than 15 years at Sultanpur Lodhi, where he attained enlightenment.

Many cities in Punjab are celebrating the Prakash Parv. The Golden Temple in Amritsar has been decorated with flowers. Nagar Kirtans were taken out yesterday in various cities including Amritsar.

Union Information and Broadcasting Minister Prakash Javadekar will visit Huzoor Sahib Sachkhand Gurudwara in Nanded. He will serve in the langar and will participate in the plantation of 550 saplings. He will also take part in an exhibition organised by the government which will showcase the life journey of Guru Nanak Dev Ji.


Nanded holds great significance for Sikhs.

It was in Nanded that the Tenth Guru of Sikhs, Guru Gobind Singh Ji mandated that the Guru Granth Sahib will be the guiding light for the Sikhs like a true Guru in future. Nanded gets pilgirms from the world over.

Guru Nanak Dev was born on the full moon day of Kartik month in 1469. Every year, the Prakash Parv is celebrated on the same day, also known as Kartik Poornima.

Guru Nanak Dev Ji was a philosopher, social reformer, thinker and poet. Devotees organise langar at various places on this occasion.

The celebrations are not confined to India alone. Indian High Commission in Dubai has been decorated on the occasion.



In Nepal too, many programmes have been organised. At the Guru Nanak Math in Kathmandu, Akhand Path and Shabad Kirtan were organised. Guru Nanak Dev Ji came to this place in Nepal to meditate during his third Udasi.


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CHANGE ON THE GROUND

A 500-Year-Old Civilisational Wound Gets An Assured Healing

The SC has ruled that the Sunni Waqf Board HAS FAILED to establish its case. Muslims should be given alternate land for building a mosque.

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NEW DELHI: In a unanimous verdict, a five-judge bench headed by Chief Justice Ranjan Gogoi and comprising Chief Justice-designate Justice SA Bobde, Justice Ashok Bhushan, Justice DY Chandrachud and Justice SA Nazeer, has ruled that the Sunni Waqf Board HAS FAILED to establish its case on the land (Shri Ram Janmabhoomi). Muslims should be given alternate land for building the ‘lost Mosque’.

Also Read: Story About The Hearing In SC And Links To Other Related Stories Inside

The bench has ruled that the Union Government should formulate a scheme within 3-4 months for setting up of trust and hand over the disputed site to it for construction of a temple at the site. At the same time, a suitable alternative plot of land measuring 5 acres at Ayodhya will be given to Sunni Wakf Board.


In pointers:

  • A suitable plot of land measuring 5 acre shall be given to Sunni Waqf Board either by the state or by the Centre
  • Under Article 142, SC directs in the scheme to be framed, Nirmohi Akhara to also get representation
  • Land to remain vested in statutory receiver till trust is formed
  • Trust to be formed in three months
  • Management of construction of the temple to be monitored by the trust
  • Suit 3 by Nirmohi Akhara dismissed as barred by limitation.
  • Suit 4 and suit 5 within limitation.
  • Central Govt should within 3 months formulate a scheme envisaging setting up of Trust
  • Possession of inner and outer courtyards to be handed over to the Trust

The entire judgement would be placed on the official website of the Supreme Court of India here:
https://www.sci.gov.in/pdf/judgment.pdf

Dismissing the claim of the Sunni side that the report by the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) was based on conjectures, the bench ruled there is adequate material in ASI report to conclude the following:



Babri Masjid (built in the 15th Century) NOT constructed on vacant land.

There was a structure underlying the disputed structure.

The underlying structure belonged to the 12th Century.

The underlying structure was NOT an Islamic structure.

On the subject of the ASI scientific report, hough the ASI had refrained from recording a finding on whether the mosque was built after demolishing a Hindu temple, “the finding of title cannot be based only on the expert report of ASI”, the Supreme Court said. “Title to the land should be decided based on settled legal principles,” the 5-judge bench held.


HIGHLIGHTS OF THE JUDGEMENT:

Hindus believe that Lord Ram was born right below the central dome of the disputed structure, SC

Both Hindu and Muslim witnesses indicate that Hindus and Muslims were offering prayers at the disputed site

Whether a belief is justified is beyond judicial inquiry. Once faith is established, courts should defer to it



A title should be decided based on evidence in a court of law. A title cannot be established based on faith and belief

Suit 4 of Sunni Board is a suit for possession and is covered by Article 142 of Limitation Act.

So the limitation is 12 years and Suit 4 is within the limitation

Possession, as asserted by Muslims, cannot meet the threshold of adverse possession

From documentary evidence, it emerges that prior to 1857, there was no exclusion of Hindus from worshipping at the site


The outer courtyard became a focal point of worshipping by Hindus

Riots of 1934 indicate that the possession of inner courtyard became a matter of serious contention

Muslims have not been able to establish possessory title to the inner courtyard

The Muslims have not brought evidence to show possessory title, there is no evidence to show the offer of Namaz by Muslims to the exclusion of Hindus.


Hindus have been able to establish unimpeded possession of outer courtyard

The disputed site is one composite plot

The inner courtyard is a contested site. Evidence indicates no abandonment of mosque by Muslims

Destruction of mosque against the rule of law


The first pronouncement was in the form of the bench dismissing the claim of the Shia Waqf Board with regards the ownership of the site. (The main party, it may be noted, is the Sunni Waqf Board)


Next reading by the bench was that Suit 3 filed by Nirmohi Akhara is governed by Article 120 of Limitation Act and is barred by limitation. The claim of Nirmohi Akhara is only of management. Nirmohi Akhara is not a Shabait, ruled Supreme Court.

The bench had reserved the judgement on October 16, after 40 days of daily hearing on the matter, which began on August 6.

An old lady praying at Ram temple at Tulsibaug, Pune, Maharashtra. (File Photo: Siddhartha Joshi)

While there has been an unmanageable frenzy in media and social media, the situation on the ground at the moment seems to be almost exactly opposite of that:

In equal measure, #hindumuslimbhaibhai started trending as one of the top India trends on Twitter with at least 10,000 tweets till 10 am. Authorities said social media posts will be monitored to ensure that no attempt is made to vitiate the atmosphere by spreading fake or inflammatory content. Arrangements have also been made to ensure the safety and security of religious places across the country.

Ground Situation Update (22:00 HRS / 10 PM):



IN BRIEF

What is the Case:

Ostensibly a plot of land of 2.77 acres in Ayodhya. For more than seven decades, Hindu campaigners have been pushing to build a temple there for Bhagwan Shri Ram, who they believe was born on the site where the Mughals later built the Babri mosque — upon an existing temple.

The Allahabad High Court in 2010 ordered the disputed land be split into three parts, two going to Hindu groups and the third to the Sunni Waqf Board, representing Muslims. All three parties appealed to the Supreme Court. (Meanwhile, a fourth group that says it represents Shias joined the case, asking for the land to go to the Hindus.) Final hearings began in August and ended October 16.

What are the Claims of the Litigants:

To Hindus, it’s the revered birthplace of Bhagwan Shri Ram. To Muslims, it’s the site of a 16th-century mosque that was razed in 1992 by kar sevaks (volunteers). After a long legal fight, the Supreme Court today ruled on which of the country’s two biggest religions owns the site.

What is the Brief History of the Issue:

During British rule, the colonial masters kept the site divided, permitting Muslims to pray inside the mosque and Hindus to worship outside. In 1949, Hindu activists forcefully entered the mosque and placed an idol of Ram inside.

Anticipating violence, the Jawahar Lal Nehru government locked the main gate. Lawsuits were then filed by religious groups seeking control. The issue stayed in limbo till the 1980s, when many Hindu organisations and the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) launched a campaign to build a Bhagwan Shri Ram temple at the site.

On December 6, 1992, a frenzied Hindu mob gathered and razed to the ground much of the mosque. That provoked nationwide riots in which more than 2,000 people lost their lives.

On March 12, 1993, more than 250 people were killed in retaliatory bombings in Mumbai.


The Reason Behind Choosing Today’s Date for Judgement:

Justice Ranjan Gogoi is due to retire on November 17. November 17 is a Sunday and usually, the verdict in an important case is not announced on a holiday. The court’s decisions are also not announced on a day a judge retires. Moreover, the last working day of Justice Gogoi is November 15.

In terms of normal practice, if the court announces a verdict, the next day, the plaintiff or one of the defendants requests the court to review the decision again, and the process generally takes one or two days.

Hence Justice Gogoi might have decided to go for the judgement today.

Security Establishment On Top Of The Moment:

The Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) has also dispatched around 4,000 paramilitary personnel for security deployment in Uttar Pradesh, particularly in Ayodhya.

A general advisory has been sent to all states and Union territories asking them to deploy adequate security personnel in all sensitive places and ensure that no untoward incident takes place anywhere in the country.

Uttar Pradesh Director General of Police (DGP) Om Prakash Singh notified that several confidence-building measures have been taken by the cops. “We did around 10,000 meetings across the state with religious leaders and citizens. We are appealing to  the people of the state to not spread rumours on social media.”

Paramilitary forces have been deployed in Ayodhya and drones are being used to conduct aerial surveillance on the day of the Ayodhya case verdict. Singh added that the intelligence machinery has also been geared up and random checks are also taking place. An ADG rank officer has been deployed in Ayodhya to keep an eye on operations, Singh said.

As an exercise of utmost caution, the Uttar Pradesh-Nepal border has been sealed following a meeting of top officials with Chief Minister Yogi Adityanath around Friday midnight. Additional Chief Secretary for Home Avanish Awasthi said that no one without proper identification would be allowed to move along the sensitive border. Awasthi said that railway forces have been directed to take safety and security of railway passengers inside trains and railway stations.

On Friday, hours before the Supreme Court notified the Saturday sitting, Gogoi met Uttar Pradesh Chief Secretary Rajendra Kumar Tiwari and Director General of Police Om Prakash Singh in his court chamber.


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